adenylate kinase glycolysis


Regulation of glucose metabolism by 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatases in cancer. The reaction catalyzed by PFK is the committed step of glycolysis. 2009;21(6):894–9. Cells were suspended in serum-free medium containing 0.1% bovine serum albumin and loaded into each well of the upper chamber.

a K472 is located…, Cytoplasmic PFKFB3 potentiates S461 phosphorylation.…, Cytoplasmic PFKFB3 potentiates S461 phosphorylation. 1e). PFK-2/FBPase-2: maker and breaker of the essential biofactor fructose-2,6-bisphosphate.


Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology (ATVB), Journal of the American Heart Association (JAHA), Customer Service and Ordering Information, Basic, Translational, and Clinical Research, Adenylate Kinase–Catalyzed Phosphotransfer in the Myocardium, Cardiac Energetics in Patients With Aortic Stenosis and Preserved Versus Reduced Ejection Fraction. 2012;72(19):5119–29. Article  2007;67(2):563–72. For scoring, both intensity and percentage of protein expression were recorded. Cells. Role of Akt/PKB and PFKFB isoenzymes in the control of glycolysis, cell proliferation and protein synthesis in mitogen-stimulated thymocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. c Relative ATP levels, glucose consumption, and lactate production upon AK4 overexpression in CL1-0 cells. Notably, upregulation of AK4 was significantly correlated with genes in glycolysis_gluconeogenesis metabolism and glutathione metabolism (Fig. 2012;31(14):1757–70. here...... Because AMP is an allosteric regulator It is widely known that HIF-1α regulation mainly occurs at the level of protein stability. Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation. ATP is an inhibitor (as well as a substrate!) Yi M, Ban Y, Tan Y, Xiong W, Li G, Xiang B. Mol Metab. 2016 Nov;160(1):29-40. doi: 10.1007/s10549-016-3968-8. To this end, we also found the expression GnT-V protein was regulated by AK4 under hypoxia in a HIF-1α-dependent manner (Additional file 1: Figure S2A). All experiments were performed in quadruplicate.

Guzy RD, Hoyos B, Robin E, Chen H, Liu L, Mansfield KD, et al. In many eukaryotic PFK orthologs, a "side" metabolite of glycolysis, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, activates the enzyme. �$Y�6]�%�,�����y{���d�n���N�{�� �(�-��p��6�lw��}�f�\uꕏ��/��q���~ ��u��K��C�� ��m��~S�w)d s�2�/��WA�:�_B67/���謖�Gm4�]������A� �B[�y������7��{��{���y��П�β[ ���~���g4ă>I��}1ߘr All observations were confirmed in at least three independent experiments. 2011;25(18):1895–908. We found that HIF-1α activity is significantly activated in lung adenocarcinoma patients with an AK4 metabolic gene signature. In metastatic cancer cells, energy metabolism is altered due to constant exposure to oxidative stress and chronic nutrient and oxygen depletion. Hydroxylated HIF-1α is then polyubiquitinated by E3 ubiquitin ligase, leading to proteosomal degradation. 3-fold increase in ADP and ultimately a 1,400% increase in AMP. b Left, WB analysis of AK4, HIF-1α, E-cadherin, and vimentin upon AK4 knockdown in CL1-5 cells. Virus-containing supernatants were collected, titrated, and used to infect cells using 8 μg/mL polybrene. Chang X, Ravi R, Pham V, Bedi A, Chatterjee A, Sidransky D. Adenylate kinase 3 sensitizes cells to cigarette smoke condensate vapor induced cisplatin resistance. Right, pimonidazole-positive tumor area was detected and quantified by Definiens imaging analysis algorithm. 4b and Additional file 1: Figure S3B). The following antibodies were used in western blot analyses: anti-AK4 (Genetex, 1:2000), anti-HIF-1α (Cell Signaling, 1:1000), anti-hydroxylated HIF-1α (Cell Signaling, 1:1000), anti-E-cadherin (BD Bioscience, 1:1000), anti-vimentin (Sigma, 1:2000), anti-Snail (Cell Signaling, 1:1000), and anti-α-tubulin (Sigma-Aldrich, 1:5000) antibodies. AK4 is positively correlated with HIF-1α expression in NSCLC patients. Regulation of gene expression by hypoxia: integration of the HIF-transduced hypoxic signal at the hypoxia-responsive element.

5d). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a key transcription factor in the cell response to hypoxic stress. CAS  Moreover, Lanning et al. 1956;124:269–270. Mitochondrial complex III is required for hypoxia-induced ROS production and cellular oxygen sensing. mg−1 protein) in normal (B, n=5) and failing (D, n=6) myocardium. The following antibodies were used to detect AK4, HIF-1α, E-cadherin, and pimonidazole in tissues: AK4 (Genetex, 1:200), HIF-1α (Cell Signaling, 1:100), E-cadherin (Cell Signaling, 1:100), and pimonidazole (Hypoxyprobe, INC). Acetylation mimetic mutant of PFKFB3 disrupts its NLS motif. 2004;111(1):43–50. Adenylate Kinase and Metabolic Signaling in Cancer Cells. Overexpression of AK4 shifts metabolism toward aerobic glycolysis and increases the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which subsequently stabilizes HIF-1α protein and promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer cells in a HIF-1α-dependent manner. 2007;9(2):210–7. Epub 2017 Feb 22. Terms and Conditions, USA.gov. tions in glycolysis. Other EMT regulators, such as Zeb1, Zeb2, and TCF-3, have been reported to be upregulated in pVHL-null renal cell carcinoma in which HIF-1α is constitutively overexpressed [42]. **P ≤ 0.01 d Relative ADP/ATP ratio upon AK4 overexpression in CL1-0 cells under Nx or Hx. RT-PCR analysis showed that AK4 along with several HIF-1α downstream targets, including VEGF, GLUT1, and HK2, were induced upon hypoxia. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient included in this study. At the endpoint, mice were intravenously injected with Hypoxyprobe™ (Hypoxyprobe, Inc) solution at a dosage of 60 mg/kg body weight and tumors were removed and analyzed for hypoxic necrosis using immunostaining of pimonidazole adducts in tissues. This work was supported by grants from the NIH (HL-07111 and HL-36634), American Heart Association, Miami Heart Research Institute, and the Bruce and Ruth Rappaport Program in Vascular Biology and Gene Delivery. a Global GSEA statistics of differentially expressed genes in AK4-overexpressing CL1-0 cells compared with vector-expressing CL1-0 cells. Journal of Hematology & Oncology (related to Fig. gluconeogenesis, irreversible, Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate ------> 2013;25(9):1895–903.

Adenylate kinase, present in mitochondrial and myofibrillar compartments, enables the transfer and makes available the energy of 2 high-energy phosphoryls, the β- and the γ-phosphoryls of a single ATP molecule.

Through pharmacogenomics analysis, we identified withaferin-A as a potential inhibitor that reverses the AK4-induced gene signature and acts as a potent anti-metastatic agent in lung cancer. Cells were plated in 6-well plates and treated with cycloheximide (CHX) at a concentration of 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Cells were then exposed to hypoxia for 6 h to stabilize HIF-1α protein and then switched to normoxic conditions. AK4 overexpression reduces hypoxic necrosis and promotes liver metastasis in vivo. The increase in AMP is what's important Patten DA, Lafleur VN, Robitaille GA, Chan DA, Giaccia AJ, Richard DE. The enriched gene sets positively correlated with AK4 expression could be further categorized into four super metabolic pathways: carbohydrate, amino acid, xenobiotic, and oxidative stress pathways (Fig. Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed on unofficial pages of California State Figure 2. hCINAP determines CRCSC phenotypes in CRC cells. COVID-19 campus closures: see options for getting or retaining Remote Access to subscribed content 2008;10(3):295–305. PubMed  On the other hand, knockdown of AK4 in CL1-5 cells reduced ROS levels nearly 20% compared with those in shNS control cells (Fig. at National Taiwan University Hospital and displayed progressively increased invasiveness, while PC13 and PC14 cell lines were derived from Tokyo National Cancer Centre Hospital. K.-L.G. Significantly increased AK4 protein levels have been detected during development, in cultured cells exposed to hypoxia and in an animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [9, 14,15,16].
The quantitative liver nodule number data confirmed the anti-metastasis effect of WFA because mice who received WFA at 1.0 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in liver metastatic nodule number (Fig. Mol. In hypoxia, hydroxylation does not occur due to the lack of substrate oxygen for PHDs. Acetylation of MORC2 by NAT10 regulates cell-cycle checkpoint control and resistance to DNA-damaging chemotherapy and radiotherapy in breast cancer. 2006;31(1):49–60. During intense exercise: large conversion of ATP to ADP with the muscle attempting to phosphorylate ADP back to ATP, this increase in ADP pushes the reaction to the left (mass action effect) Thus, adenosine and AMP have pleiotropic metabolic signaling and energetic effects which could be further … After 24 h, a cell pellet was collected, and the amount of ATP was quantified using an ATP colorimetric assay kit (BioVision) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. eCollection 2020.

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