I think those numbers are old, as you can tell from the "excludes terrorism" qualifier. Moreover, they also show the problem of interferences between the gases. In order to avoid stress corrosion defects in titanium propellant tanks, 1 or 3% of nitrogen oxide (NO) per weight by volume is added to the oxidizer NTO. SpaceX says Crew Dragon capsule exploded due to exotic titanium fire, https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/866010.pdf. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program recently upgraded the NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), including NTRS-Registered, to enhance discoverability of, and access to, NASA-funded STI. "The following metals have been found to be incompatible with nitrogen tetroxide and must not be used: Aluminum 2024, Zinc, Aluminum 7075, Silver, K-Monel, Titanium, Brass Cadmium, Bronze Hastelloy, Copper, EZ Flow 45 Braze. https://twitter.com/iamkostmos/status/1104510464627625984. I was able to easily visualize the event. A burst disk, however, embodies the same concept as a relief valve—it prevents the pressurization of a system above its rated capacity. Also (important qualifier), that number excludes acts of suicide and terrorism.
Of course, this was in the 1990s when you could legally buy military explosives with a driver's license and cash... https://tmstitanium.com/how-titanium-is-cut/. > "titanium fire" but my brain substituted "magnesium fire". It is a very simple thermodynamics equation that determines which combos work well. A leak of nitrogen tetroxide, used as a liquid oxydiser, caused an explosion within a titanium check valve, investigation finds. Controlling the particle characteristics would be a bit of a challenge though.
Iodine reacts with silver nitrite with the liberation of nitrogen tetroxide: 2 AgNO2 + I2 = 2 AgI + N2O4. SpaceX acknowledged the incident after images apparently showing the spacecraft bursting into flames appeared on social media, although neither organisation immediately commented. Those guys work 14 to 16 hours a day. And this, when wet with nitric acid, was as sensitive as nitroglycerine or mercury fulminate. I have a better understanding after reading the actual SpaceX presser.
It became the storable oxidizer of choice for many rockets in both the United States and USSR by the late 1950s. There is also a systems issue where if a life-critical failure occurs upstream resulting in everyone being dead already, it doesn't matter if downstream a system that should never be contaminated fails and burns. It's described as "Train accidents" so it could potentially be more general, but grade crossings and trespassers are separated out, which seems to imply that "Train accidents" is occupants. Measuring by hour is plainly stupid. 2) Some industrial nitric acid plant components are made of very expensive titanium because its strong and essentially nitric acid corrosion proof. SpaceX and NASA believe a titanium fire was the reason a launchpad test of its Crew Dragon vehicle - intended to one day fly astronauts to the International Space Station - ended in flames. I've taken these from other commenters, but can someone rectify these apparently contradictory statements for me? I wonder if it's possible to make titanium thermite as easily as aluminum thermite? This isn't entirely arbitrary: air travel has gotten a lot safer lately. Everyone uses the cheapest chemistry that still does the job adequately. > Not hard to achieve during unscheduled disassembly. We'll pay the Russians what it takes to keep going to ISS. I obtained back you could just order this stuff, 100g of titanium powder. I'm sure airliners would still come out on top against cars, but the ratio would be different. (RFNA is a mixture of NTO and anhydrous nitric acid). Industrial chemistry is all about price performance of the chemistry not absolute performance, but some use cases are more performance sensitive than price sensitive so people will design bespoke and unusual ("exotic") chemistry for the purpose. In the US (important qualifier), commercial air travel sees a fatality rate of 0.07 per billion passenger miles.
http://developing-your-web-presence.blogspot.com/2008/10/on-... https://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-spacex-crew-dragon-es... https://journalistsresource.org/studies/environment/transpor... https://www.bts.gov/content/transportation-fatalities-mode, https://www.bts.gov/content/us-passenger-miles. The main considerations are the net energy release of the reaction, which can vary widely, and the amount of energy required to bootstrap the reaction, which can be extremely high. Aren't all these thermite oxidisers metals or metalloids? These include. An electronics analogy is a dude who can't solder at all thinks thru-hole soldering is exotic skills and equipment.
You can cut it with a carbide saw, presumably this makes powder? Boosters are typically direct metal oxidation reactions e.g. Buses did 3,234 billion passenger miles with 486 fatalities, for a rate of 0.15. It is a hypergoli… Also worth pointing out that for trips less than a few hundred miles, other modes are probably safer. Ooh, I'll have to keep an eye out! It is used in the Titan III, 34D, and IV space launch vehicles, the Space Shuttle reaction control system, and in some of the newer satellite … On December 29, 1953, a technician at Edwards Air Force Base was examining a set of titanium samples immersed in RFNA, when, absolutely without warning, one or more of them detonated, smashing him up, spraying him with acid and flying glass, and filling the room with NO₂. In the US, cars account for roughly 10x the number of passenger miles as airlines, so you’d expect 10x the fatalities if they were equally safe. Just look at how much it took to get the titanium fire going on the Crew Dragon- a chunk of NTO had to slam into a valve at really high speed. FTA: “...instead of a mechanical check valve (simple but still not 100% passive), the barrier between pressurant and oxidizer (as well as fuel, most likely) will be replaced with something known as a burst disk.”. I guess truth hurts. If cheap air travel availability as a mode induces people to travel 10x more passenger miles, in a world where airlines were only as safe per passenger mile as cars, there would be a net reduction in public health. Welcome! https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/197200... https://www.spacex.com/news/2019/07/15/update-flight-abort-s... https://www.amazon.com/Some-birds-dont-Gary-Paulsen/dp/B0006... https://www.amazon.com/Ignition-informal-history-liquid-prop... https://archive.org/details/somebirdsdontfly00paul, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xHHZtwS9U80, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cH76ObzYIxc. It most certainly makes sense. This paragraph really drove the point home for me.
This is used to ignite the booster stage, which does deliver sufficient thermal power to bootstrap a thermite reaction but is difficult to ignite directly because it is essentially inert anywhere close to room temperature. In my lab its just another day at the office and with my suppliers and budget its boring COTS.
"Even so, the static fire test and anomaly provided a wealth of data. However, titanium would be significantly more difficult than most metals as it is atypically resistant to many common acids. My guess would be that this is actually known by a lot of people in rocketry, since UDMH/NTO is a standard propellant - the Proton is entirely fueled with it. Your intuition based on room temperature chemistry is incorrect. Probably the metal part in contact is an oxide layer that's easily abraded by big chunks of crap. SpaceX did not expect a reaction known to Boeing almost 50 years ago. It would seem that the simple issue of shattered valve fragments flying down the oxidizer line would have been sufficient to destroy the thruster irrespective of a titanium fire... Titanium is practically the only metal that can store NTO for long periods of time over a reasonably large temperature range. Initially considered and evaluated for the Bomarc (but not selected for the production version), it found its first major application in the Titan II intercontinental ballistic missile. So from an engineering standpoint if you build something under millions of cycles of repetitive stress like the shaft of a circulation pump in an industrial production NTO tank out of titanium, you're doomed to have it shear in a "sooner than economically viable" amount of time like a couple months of continuous use maybe. Clearly airlines carry way more people than that, and the fatalities are lost in the noise. That's very good, but it's also very very far from the safety record of airplanes. SpaceX stated: "It is worth noting that the reaction between titanium and NTO at high pressure was not expected. The numbers vary in other countries, but I suspect they tend to vary in the same direction and in a similar amount. Its actually a little more complicated than this. When you ignite metals in the presence of pure oxidizer, though, the result is not so much a "fire" as an explosion. In recent years, cars average around 40,000 fatalities per year, and airliners average around zero. This spectral absorption is calculated for the simplest gases from databases detailing the position and the intensity of the absorption lines such as HITRAN [ROT 12] or GEISA [JAC 09]. Both of those modes of transportation compare favorably with air travel.
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